world population
 growth of the world population

Origin of Human

Ever since the arrival of humans, they have travelled, evolved and multiplied along with their journey. From being a small community living in Africa until making a world community. World population will reach the mark of 7.7 billion as of June 2019 according to the most recent United Nations estimates. 

Among the world population, India and China alone comprises 36.15% of the world population. Where India is set to overtake China by the end of 2025. Overpopulation wasn’t something new that these nations weren’t aware of. Both nations have taken their timely efforts to reduce this cause.

What efforts were taken by the Chinese government to reduce overpopulation.

population in china
the one-child policy in China

Govt. of China took the measures to control its population by implementing of one-child policy nationwide in 1980. It was one of the most controversial policies that have ever been implemented in a strict manner by any country.  Although the policy lasted a little longer than 3 decades and ended in 2015. After years of experiment and analyses of their results, the following are some of the consequences of the one-child policy.

  1. It is a myth that the one-child policy is a success. Although it controlled the birth rate in the country but also increased social stress.
  2. China being a traditionally preferred country towards male child causes a number of female feticides and abandonment issues throughout a country.
  3. World worst ever sex ratio in 2004 i.e. 122:100 (male: female) that leading to gender imbalance.
  4. The majority of the population is old after the end of three decades leaving the country with a rapidly shrinking workforce.
  5. Breeding of unethical practices like “BRIDE PRICE”, where the money is being exchanged in return for a bride.

What efforts were taken by the Indian government to control overpopulation.

mass sterilization sanjay gandhi

Just like China India to have taken action from time to time to check its population growth. One such effort was taken between 1975 and 1977 during which India was under a state of emergency because of the internal disturbance going on in a country. There are many issues, one of which is a family planning initiative. This program had begun in April 1976 through which the government hoped to lower India’s ever-increasing population growth rate. Under this program Indira Gandhi Govt. propagated “FORCED STERILIZATION” led by Sanjay Gandhi. This program caused sterilization of approx.  10 million Indians. Though, the impact on the growth rate was negligible. Also, it is considered one of the worst unethical practices ever done in history.  Not only India but there are many nations like the US, Germany, Canada, Bangladesh, China, Japan, Russia, etc. who have adopted the same practice to promote eugenics programs.


1. Correlation of literacy rate and fertility rate:-

It has been observed that, as the literacy rate of the particular area rises, the fertility rate of the area automatically falls. Hence, more preference needs to be given to the education of society at a larger scale.

2. More investment in healthcare programs:-

Healthcare programs like family planning counseling and hygienic education is really important to spread.

3. More investment in educational programs:-

Root level nourishment of human resources is necessary. Hence, efforts should be made to distribute the major part of a nation and state income on education welfare fund.

4. Need to approach the replacement fertility rate:-

Replacement fertility rate refers to the average number of children a woman has to keep to replace the current population with the future generation. The ideal replacement fertility rate is considered to be 2.1. Hence, efforts should be made to maintain the fertility rate of all states below 2. Some states have successfully achieved the replacement fertility rate of 2 while some are struggling to keep it below 3.


It can be seen that overpopulation cause many turmoils in a country that starts with poverty, unemployment, climate change, regional difference, and social conflicts, especially on part of a country like India which is rich in cultural heritage. Hence, it can be said that raise in the population is not a problem but smart raise is essential that can balance the ratio of younger and older in a country as well as replace the current ratio with the coming ratio.

“Whether we accept it or not, this will likely be the century that determines what the optimal human population is for our planet. It will come about in one of two ways:

Either we decide to manage our own numbers, to avoid a collision of every line on civilization's graph - or nature will do it for us, in the form of famines, thirst, climate chaos, crashing ecosystems, opportunistic disease, and wars over dwindling resources that finally cut us down to size.”
- Alan Weisman 

Must Read:
POPULATION [ On World Map]


  1. Well Written. Over population & imbalance sex ratio needs to be addresses aggressively.

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